A common forum of Nepalese students at Hokkaido University

 Hokudai Bisauni

#### Vol. 1, April, 2003

Articles

Proceedings of HUNSA Meetings

Resolutions of 1st GA, January 20, 2002

Formation of Association: We Nepalese student studying at Hokkaido University agreed to form ourselves into a student association named "Hokkaido University Nepalese Student Association", HUNSA in short from Jan 20, 2002 to promote our academic welfare, cultural and other creative activities.

Constitution: The GA went through section wise discussion on draft of constitution of the Association and passed constitution unanimously after making necessary amendments, effective immediately after passed by the GA on Jan 20, 2002.

Membership Fees: The GA decided the following fees: Entrance fee = 1000 Yen and Annual fee = 1000 Yen.

Relationship with other organizations: The GA recognized HONESS as a social welfare organization and NESAJ as an academic welfare organization.

Formation of Executive Committee: The GA unanimously elected members of the fist Executive Committee of HUNSA as follows:

President: Mr. Prakash Ranjitkar

Secretary: Mr. Meghraj Bhandari

Treasurer: Mr. Kedar Nath Adhikari

Members: Mr. Shreehari Gautam

Mr. Sanjay Giri

Resolutions of 2nd GA, May 18, 2002

Hokudai International Festival: The GA briefly discussed about the Hokudai International Festival and following decisions were made,

a. To mark the presence of HUNSA in forthcoming festival and requested all its members to actively participate in this event.

b. Approved the proposal of Executive Committee regarding joint participation with HONESS in this event on equal share basis.

c. Formed various working groups with working time schedules for smooth functioning.

Financial Regulation Act: The GA felt the need of a financial regulation to utilize the HUNSA fund. A committee of following members was formed to prepare the draft: Coordinator: Mr. Ajoy Bista Members: Mr. Kedar Nath Adhikari, Mr. Subesh Ghimire and Mr. Saseem Poudel

Resolutions of 3rd GA, August 14, 2002

Constitutional Amendments: The GA decided to amend the constitution as follows:

Section V: Finance

5.2: Fund utilization: The executive committee shall utilize the fund on:

5.2.1: Functioning of the associationfs activities. 5.2.2: Student welfare activities.

5.2.3: Social donations, if deemed necessary by the majority of members.

Donation to Flood Victims in Nepal: The GA expressed deep concern on the loss of life and property by recent floods and land slides in Nepal and decided to send 120,000 yen as a token of our sympathy to assist the victims through Prime Ministerfs Disaster Relief Fund.

Vote of Thanks: The GA expressed sincere thanks to the financial operational act preparation committee for their effort to prepare it in time.

Financial Regulation Act-2002: The GA discussed on the draft of financial operation act and gave mandate to the executive committee to revise it in consideration with the new provisions added in the constitution, collecting comments from members if any and then implement.

Nomination in the vacant position: The GA nominated Mr. Sunil Kumar Lama as executive member of the executive committee.

Resolutions of 4th GA, January 4, 2003

Annual Report of HUNSA Activities: The annual report of HUNSA activities presented by the outgoing General Secretary was approved unanimously.

Annual Financial Statement: Annual financial statement presented by the outgoing treasurer was approved unanimously.

Amendment on Constitution: Mr. Kedar Nath Adhikari proposed one-time membership fee citing at difficulties to collect it every year. After getting opinions from members it was decided to keep the existing system of 1000 Yen entrance fee and 1000 Yen membership fee every year.

Formation of Second Executive Committee: The election committee comprised of Dr. Surendra Tamrakar and Dr. Krishna Hari Gautam conducted election. The GA unanimously formed new Executive Committee for the next term.

President: Mr. Sunil Kumar Lama

Secretary: Mr. Sanjay Giri

Treasurer: Mr. Saseem Poudel

Members: Mr. Subesh Ghimire

Mr. Sanjay Acharya

Welcome Program: All participants introduce themselves to the new member Ms. Renuka Tamrakar and welcomed her to this community.

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HUNSA Activities Reports

Prakash Ranjitkar

A graduation party was organized on March 1, 2002 in the honor of Nepalese students graduating from Hokkaido University in March. This was the first program organized by HUNSA after its formation in January 20, 2002. All three graduating members participated in this event. Dr. Ganesh Prasad Dhakal and Dr. Ramji Bhandari had successfully completed their doctorate study from Graduate School of Engineering and Graduate School of Science, respectively. Mr. Chinta Mani Gautam had completed his master study from Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science.

The party started around 5:20 pm. All students and their family and some Nepalese residing in Sapporo gathered to congratulate the graduating friends. The program started with congratulatory message from Mr. Prakash Ranjitkar, President of HUNSA. Mr. Meghraj Bhandari, Secretary of HUNSA, conducted this program. Mr. Om Krishna Timilsina, President of HONESS also congratulated the Nepalese graduates and explained about HONESS, which is a social organization of Nepalese residents in Sapporo. The graduating students expressed their feelings and their experiences during their study and informed about their future plans. All participants congratulated them with the best wishes for future career.

Mr. Sanjay Giri performed a nice Nepali song and Mr. Hem Nath Ghimire came up with some interesting jokes and group acts and plays that made everybody laughing. The winner of logo competition Mr. Dhananjay Regmi was acknowledged for the best logo design and given a prize as a token of appreciation. The gathering also acknowledged contributions from Mr. Sunil Kumar Lama and Mr. Prakash Ranjitkar for designing logos for HUNSA.

In the later part of the program, a dinner party was held. Typical Nepali food prepared in traditional fashion made all participant feel at home. The lady members of this community coordinated this part of the program. Thanks for their efforts to organize the dinner party and preparation of delicious foods that everybody enjoyed during the party. The dinner party was followed by informal talks. Later, Mrs. Nanu Gen and Mrs. Sabina Ranjitkar performed a Nepali dance. The program was concluded around 8:00 pm.

Welcome Program for New Students

Prakash Ranjitkar

A welcome program was organized on April 12, 2002 to welcome new Nepalese students at Hokkaido University in April semester. There were three newcomer friends, Mr. Ajoy Bista and Mr. Subesh Ghimire had joined intensive language course after coming from Nepal while Mr. Saseem Poudel who came from Tokyo after finishing one-year intensive language course had joined undergraduate course in the department of medical science. All of them participated in this program.

Most of the students and some of Nepalese residing in Sapporo gathered to welcome new friends. Mr. Meghraj Bhandari, Secretary of HUNSA, conducted the program. The newcomer friends introduced themselves and expressed their feeling after coming to Japan. They also explained about their educational and professional background before joining Hokkaido University. This was followed by introduction of all other participants. New friends were congratulated and welcomed in this community with best wishes for successful academic career at Hokkaido University.

Hokkaido University International Festival

Prakash Ranjitkar

Hokkaido University International Festival (hokudaisai) is organized every year in June along the main street of Hokkaido University. A large number of Japanese and International food stalls are set up to serve a wide variety of foods and drinks. Stage performances, exhibitions and street performances are other major attractions of this festival. Last year, Earth Club organized this event during June 6 - 9, 2002, in coordination with the International Student Center. HUNSA participated in this event for the first time jointly with HONESS. A Nepalese stall was erected in the allocated space in the morning hour on June 6, 2002. We were ready to serve customers from the noon. Over two thousands of visitors were served with Nepali foods during this festival. Momo, Chicken Curry Rice and Nepali Tea were served as Nepali food. Nepalese students also participated in the stage performance and performed a Nepali group dance and a song. The street performances were also interesting during this festival. Nepalese students performed typical Nepali dances in front of our stall that attracted many visitors. Some of the Japanese visitors and International students joined this group dance.

The work was challenging, as several activities have to be performed at the same time. We divided in to small groups to be involved in different activities like momo preparation, cooking matters, cutting onions and chickens, serving customers, inviting customers, performing Nepali dances in street, mobile food service, cleaning utensils etc. Sometimes, there were long queue for service while some time no customer. Lunchtime and evening time were peak time while in the afternoon time there were only few visitors. Although, a work schedule was prepared at the very beginning stage of preparation, it couldnft be implemented properly mainly because of our hectic schedule.

Thanks to all members of our community who worked really hard to make it a great success. All Nepalese students showed a great team spirit during this event. Besides, we learned many things about the organization and management of such events that will be very useful for such similar events in future. Thanks to the lady members of our community for their contribution in the preparation of food, serving foods, inviting customers and performance of Nepali group dance. They have great contribution for the success of this event. Thanks to all Japanese friends who have contributed in this event. We are also thankful to all international students for their cooperation during this event. It has become one of the memorable events of our life.

Sports Program

Sanjay Giri

On the auspicious occasion of DASHAIN (2059 BS), HUNSA organized a one-day intramural sports fun so as to draw away our members from the torment of regular academic life at least for a while. Better to have a look on the same rather than to explain in words.

Farewell and Interaction Program

Sanjaya Acharya

HUNSA executive committee organised the farewell and interactive programmes on 7th March at 5pm at the 3rd floor of Multimedia Building, Hokkaido University. Recently graduated HUNSA members Dr. Roshan Tuladhar & Mr. Dhananjay Regmi were given some souvenirs on behalf of HUNSA. Afterwards, these distinguished guests presented the summaries of their studies.

During the second phase of the programme, there were brief presentations on the basic computer skills. Dr. Krishna Hari Gautam spoke on Endnotes, Mr. Prakash Ranjitkar on Powerpoints and Webpage, and Mr. Subesh Ghimire on Coral-draw. Afterwards, informational note on computer software was also prepared. The programme also associated with a reception in between the two sessions.

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Money Matters

Collected by Ajoy Bista

India, Mauritius, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka use Rupee (divided into 100 smaller units called paisa) as the monetary unit. In recent years, members of European Union have been using Euro as common currency. Currency of some other countries is as follows,

 Country Major currency Minor currency Country Major currency Minor currency Afghanistan           afghani              100 pule Albania                  lek                   100 qindarka Argentina             peso                  100 centavos Armenia               dram                  100 luna Australia              dollar                 100 cents Bahamas              dollar                 1,000 cents Bahrain                dinar                  1,000 fils Bangladesh            taka                  100 poisha Barbados              dollar                 100 cents Belize                  dollar                  100 cents Bolivia                 boliviano             100 centavos Brazil                    real                   100 centavos Burma                   kyat                  100 pyas Burundi                franc                  100 centimes Cambodia              riel                    100 sen Cameroon              franc                 100 centimes Canada                  dollar                 100 cents Central Africa        franc                   100 centimes Chile                     peso                   100 fen China                    yuan                   100 centavos Colombia               peso                   100 centavos Congo                   franc                  100 centimos Costa Rica             colon                  100 centimos Cuba                     peso                   100 centavos Dominica              dollar                   100 cents Dominican Rep.     peso                    100 centavos Ecuador                sucre                   100 centavos Egypt                    pound                  100 piastres El Salvador            colon                    100 centavos Estonia            kroon               100 sents Ethiopia            birr                 100 cents Fiji                       dollar                    100 cents

HUNSA Talk Program: An Overview

Sunil Kumar Lama

Maharajgunj, Kathmandu

HUNSA organized a Talk/Interaction program among their members on 11 October 2002 in Hokkaido University. The principal purpose of this program was to exchange and share the knowledge of their individual researches/findings, with the view that it could be informative and equally useful to other members too in order to grasp the broad spectrum of knowledge.

Active participation of members and constructive discussion on the presentation made the program much interesting and worthy. It was very enjoyable to have the discussion on our own Nepali language and was much understandable to everyone even though presentations were from various field of study. Due to such achievements, raise of enthusiasm for the organization of such activities in further days too have been realized among the members. In order to disseminate the general discussion of the program, the compilation of the abstracts of the presentation is provided below. For the detail query on the individual topic, it is requested to contact the respective authors directly.

The abstract of all the presentations is compiled below. Abstract of the presentation by Roshan Tuladhar is included under the topics eThesis Abstractf.

In-Situ Stress Measurement in Soft Rock with Overcoring Method using New Stressmeter

Hem Nath Ghimire

In-situ state of stress in rock is very important for design aspects of any structure to be constructed below the ground. It is more important in the case of tunnel and large caverns that are being constructed in greater numbers in the recent years. In recent years, the trend of data obtained relating to the stresses in rock has been increasing. However, most of the data is from hard and moderately hard rocks. Therefore the development of stress measurement method for soft rock is felt very necessary.

The objective of this research is to develop an instrument for the measurement of in-situ stresses in soft rocks. A new stressmeter to measure the radial and axial deformation of a pilot borehole during overcoring has been developed. As the strain gauges are not directly in touch with the rock and as axial displacement is also measured, this stressmeter is applicable to soft rocks also. The stresses in the rock are evaluated based on the measured borehole deformations.

Calibration of the sensors of the new stress meter, to measure diametrical and axial displacement, was carried out to convert the microstrain reading to the respective micrometer displacement.

Laboratory experiments were carried out to simulate the functioning of the stressmeter with the use of a rectangular welded tuff block (40cm x 40cm x 40cm) having a borehole of 40mm diameter at the center. The stressmeter was inserted into the borehole and uniaxial load was applied to the block along x-axis and z-axis, to simulate the stress relief work in the stressed rock mass. The calculated stresses in both the cases were compared with the applied loads and were found to be in accordance with it. This indicates that the new stressmeter can be applied for the in-situ stress measurement with ovecoring method in soft rocks.

Sedimentation Problem: Challenge on Hydropower Development

Sunil Kumar Lama

In the lack of the perennial rivers, for the peak load and dry season electricity demand it is necessary to have the storage type Hydro projects. For such projects, provision of detention dam causes the accumulation of the incoming sediment due to the checking of the sediment flow downstream of the rivers. As a result, useful life of the project come on depletion and may affect on its effective functioning. Especially for the country with the mountainous terrains with the fragile lands and the flash flood distinctive rivers, flow has the large possession of sediment on it. There are many challenges standing against the development of the storage type Hydro projects and sedimentation problem belongs to one of the technical challenges among them.

An integrated approach is necessary for the mitigation of the sediment hazard starting from the watershed area to the reservoir management. In order to check the incoming sediment entering in to the reservoir in advance, bypassing technique could be one of the countermeasures on that regard. It not only minimizes the sediment accumulation at the reservoir but also help in maintaining the sediment flow equilibrium downstream of the dam.

For such technique, Bypass tunnel or channel is necessary to divert the incoming sediment. In mountain regions where the river has the steep grade, bypass tunnel could be constructed with the sufficient slope so that it is not choked during its functioning. The major challenge in this technique is the abrasion and almost all the limited numbers of reported projects have faced this problem. Researches are being carried out on the development of high strength abrasion proof construction materials and designing of the bypass technique for its hydraulic efficient functioning etc.

Such technique could also be useful to our country "Nepal" towards the development of Hydropower, where we believe to have enormous potential of hydro wealth.

Transportation and Traffic Engineering: A Brief Introduction

Prakash Ranjitkar

Transportation engineering is the part of engineering that deals with safe, convenient and efficient movement of people and goods from one place to another place. Various modes and means of transportation were introduced. Transportation industry is facing problem worldwide due to increasing travel demand. The construction of new infrastructure to meet travel demand is not always possible due to economic, social and environmental constraints. In such situation, Travel Demand Management (TDM) is a useful tool to control and manage travel demand. Various TDM measures were introduced including traffic regulations and restrictions, priority to high occupancy vehicles, mass transit, road pricing, area licensing etc.

Traffic engineering deals with planning and design of road facilities and control systems to provide safe, convenient and economic movement of persons and goods.

The road users, vehicles, roadways and control systems are four components of traffic system. The traffic characteristics are the result of many varied and complex interactions among these components. It is difficult to control or predict the behavior of road users while the safety and efficiency of road users and vehicles can be optimized through proper design of roads and control systems.

Intelligent Transportation Systems are basically implementation advanced information and control technologies in transportation systems to improve its efficiency and safety. Advanced Traffic Information System (ATIS) provides real time information to travelers about traffic conditions, accidental delays, transit schedules, parking availability, roadwork, route guidance from origin to destination etc to make safer and more efficient travel decisions.

Automated Vehicle System (AHS) is perhaps the most technically advanced form of ITS which is aimed to improve efficiency of highway operation by automating the movement of vehicles.

Besides these common transportation issues a brief introduction to the current research topic of the author, which is about microscopic analysis traffic flow dynamics, was presented. The presentation covered information about car following experiments conducted in a test track using Real Time Kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers for data collection.

River Training Problem: An Overview

Sanjay Giri

Management of river training & rehabilitation works is still an art despite numerous studies. There are several studies that have been focused on bank protection technique, navigation improvement, habitats improvement etc. River training structures are the appropriate solution for multiple purposes. On the contrary, such structures have significant impact on hydraulic and geo-morphological changes of rivers. This may cause negative environmental consequences on the one hand and the failure of the structure itself on the other. It is thought that structure-induced impact appears to have been overlooked in previous works.

Of most problems that have been facing in river engineering since long, riverbank erosion is of great significance from practical engineering point of view, in particular, in the context of Nepal. Lack of proper construction technique in consideration of specific hydraulic and morphological condition of rivers and precise assessment of structure-induced impact on equilibrium river regime has thought to be underlying causes of negative environmental consequences as well as failure of structure. For an instance, field study that was made for 50 sites with river training structures in Nepal so as to evaluate their performance (Upadhyaya S.B.), more than 60% was found as failure sites. Such evidences point out towards the necessity for an integrated and state-of-the-art approach to be undertaken.

Modus operandi: Basic steps to be undertaken are thought to be as follows:

Scientific approach to the problem.

Database management that enables study on the problem to be carried out efficiently & effectively.

Application of the achievements of modern science and technology, in particular, hydro informatics / computational hydraulics.

Knowledge information distribution in regard to the problem.

Unified management of the system, i.e. joint action with other specialists like geologist, morphologist, ecologist etc.

Agricultural Perspective Plan (APP) of Nepal

Ajoy Bista

Despite tremendous efforts in the past, Nepalese agricultural sector did not grow well. Consequently, a long-term, called Perspective Agricultural Development Plan (APP) was formulated in 1995. It covers the period 1995-2015. This APP tries to accelerate the agricultural growth by increasing factor productivity, expanding employment opportunities, transformation of subsistence agriculture into a commercial one through diversification and with the principle of comparative advantage. There are immediate, short-term and long-term strategies for its implementation. It also includes the guidelines for preparing periodic plans and programs in future.

APPfs implementation requires specific demands like large public sector investment and a set of institutional mechanisms at the central and district levels to promote coordination, monitoring and evaluation, which have always been Nepalfs problem in the previous plans as well. On top of that, changes on policy and institutional environment occurred in Nepal after its formulation has further complicated its successful implementation. All these have posed newer and perhaps more serious issues on APPfs application as a guide to Nepalfs national planning. However, this APP does not take prices in its entire analysis of growth. It presents a rather mechanical view on the promotion of technology and presents rather over-simplified assumptions regarding institutions, their policies and accountabilities. It has excessive focus on inputs rather than outcomes and appears to be rigid prescriptions coupled with fixed targets.

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Universities should be independent

Professor Kizaki Koshiro, DSc,

University of the Ryukyus

Professor Kizaki Koshiro, DSc, a renowned geologist, has been involved in studying on the Himalayas since the 1970s, and concurrently, in developing education system in Nepal. He is currently Professor Emeritus at the University of the Ryukyus, Japan. Professor Koshiro enthrallingly responded (through email) to Hokudai Bisauni on various issues1.

1. What made you attract to Nepal to work?

First, because of the existence of the worldfs highest mountain range: The Himalayas, I have been attracted and wanted to climb up the peaks, while my private and official conditions prevented me from going to Nepal in those days.  Second, my thesis was to investigate the building process of the Hidaka Mountains in Hokkaido Japan as a faculty in the Department of Geology, Hokkaido University. So my interest shifted to the mountain building process of the Himalayas.  However, it was not until the autumn of 1976 to start my visit to Nepal when the Geological Society of India invited me for a Symposium on the Himalayan Geology in New Delhi.

2. Being a geologist from a developed world, how do you feel to work in Nepal?

The mountain building process of the Himalayas is a quite interesting subject, which is to be integrated with the results of interdisciplinary studies from the viewpoints of geomorphology, geology, geophysics and geochemistry.  It was quite delightful to see that ten to twenty skilled specialists working together, sometime dispersed, in the different fields and the resulted data were ultimately focused to an object: the Himalayan Upheaval. International cooperative works and discussions were also done with the Himalayan geologists from developed countries as well.

3. As you had a long involvement in Nepal how do you view Nepal and Nepali?

Nepal is a beautiful country to trek; around anywhere you will be able to meet joyful, kind and soft minded people who makes us enjoyable and happy. The environment like this reminds us that we, Japanese people, have ever had such a feeling and atmosphere sometime ago. However, quite a few Nepali intellectuals seems lost their national identity relying too much upon the foreign aid.  This is very sad though it should be considered to be inevitable in the present circumstances in this country.

4. Could you please specify some of your professional involvements in Nepal?

I led a project "Crustal Movement of the Nepal Himalayas" from 1980 to 1988 carried out in collaboration with the Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University with the grant of the Ministry of Education and Science, Japan. The collaborative works and results have contributed internationally and accordingly upgraded the intellectual status of the Department.   Later (1993-1996), I had a couple of classes for the graduate students at the Central Department of Geology as a Visiting Professor (JICA Expert).   The lecture notes based on the results from the project have been published from the Department as "An outline of the Himalayan Upheaval - A case study of the Nepal Himalayas-, 1994", and it was highly appreciated. Another textbook "Himalayan Metamorphic Rocks in Thin Section, 1995", covering the polarized photomicrographs of the typical metamorphic rocks from the Himalayas, was the first coloured book of photomicrographs of thin sections of the rocks in Nepal.   Furthermore, closely collaborative work was a geological mapping project to produce maps on the scale of 1:50,000 in SW Nepal.  Nearly all the staffs of the Department had joined in surveying, and eventually coloured map had been printed, which was the first coloured geological map on that scale in Nepal. Such map, I hope, should be quite useful not only for the construction of the infrastructure but also for preventing the natural hazard.

5. How do you view the professional commitments among Nepali Geologists?

A few Nepali staffs of the Department were still immature for the experts nevertheless they are willing to do research work. The main reasons are listed. a) The education system of the Faculty of Science and Technology seems to be out-dated.  The students have to study three years at the undergraduate Bachelor's course within which they can use the last one-year for their own technical field e.g. geology or biology or physics etc.  It is not enough for the professional training compared to our system, which has two years and even more for the undergraduate geology students.  So, the graduated M. Sc. students could not be professional, consequently the M. Sc. course is inevitably more or less on the level of the undergraduate course.  b) The fund for research work including field survey is almost nil, accordingly it is impossible for the members of the Department to carry on research work by themselves whatever they had desire to do. c) To study the natural science like geology, the apparatus such as polarized microscope, X-ray instruments and so on are indispensable but such equipments were so poor that they obliged only to give lectures depending on the texts not on their results of investigation.

6. In your experience, what are required to improve the working conditions?

Universities should be independent from the political affairs. In case of the TU, I have observed reshuffle of Vice Chancellor, Rector, Registrar, Deans and Head of the Departments with the reshuffle of the cabinet. What had been going since my back home in 1996, I don't know but I believe much progress has been going on.  However, I am convinced that there is no hope as far as the TU plays a roll of the politician's playground and training school.

7. Any suggestions for betterment of Nepal?

One of the most important things is to reform of the education system. Ten plus two system was accomplished in primary course. Entrance examination system to the TU has been introduced or not yet, I don't know. The undergraduate course needs much improvement. The TU should be subdivided into local Colleges and Universities, which makes effective management. Issues are known, however, materializing is a big challenge.   Lastly I have to comment that education such as the natural science, including technology and engineering, appeared to be neglected for a long time in Nepal.  I wonder whether the Nepali society has historically been thinking much of the sciences or not.  The education of the science and technology should be much more strengthen from the stage of primary education for the nation's future.

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Thesis Abstract

Continuous Fiber Flexible Shear Reinforcement

Lagankhel, Lalitpur

Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a new material that has just over a decade long history of application into the infrastructure construction industry. They are being favored because it has a number of material superiority over steel such as light weight, anti-corrosive, anti-magnetism, high tensile strength, workable etc. The recent seismic design codes of many countries specify large amount of shear reinforcements. The recent Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE) code specifies the spacing of not less than 150 mm compared to 1986 JSCE specification of 300mm spacing. This kind of provision has result a crowded arrangement of shear reinforcement in the reinforced concrete construction for seismic design. The construction workmanship is difficult to maintain under such condition, especially arranging into complicated designed shapes and provision of acute angled or semi circular hooks. In order to provide ease in construction and to reduce workmanship deficiency, Carbon Fiber Flexible shear Reinforcement (CFFR) and Polyacetal Fiber Flexible shear Reinforcement (PFFR) have been developed at the Hybrid Structures Laboratory of Hokkaido University in technical collaboration with Nippon Steel Composites and Asahi Chemicals.

Both CFFR and PFFR were tested as continuous shear reinforcement for concrete piers. The CFFR showed rupture at one of the bent-portions as the terminal failure mode. It is because the carbon fiber has high stiffness but low fracturing strain; so-called brittle material. An investigation into the properties of the CFFR at the bent-portion showed that the rupture failure of the CFFR at the bent-portion was governed by the angle at which it is wound around the main reinforcement and the curvature of the CFFR at the bent-portion. As the angle of winding increased, the strength at the bent-portion decreased. As the diameter of the main bar increased the strength at the bent-portion increased. On the other hand, the PFFR showed no rupture of fiber at the bent-portion. The reason is attributed to the high fracturing strain of the polyacetal fiber; so-called tough material. The PFFR is shown to replace the 75% of steel shear reinforcement without fracture at the bent-portion.

Rockfall Activity in the Eastern Nepal Himalaya: A Case Study of the Kanchenjunga Area

Dhananjay Regmi

Pauwai Gaunde, Syangja

Rockfall observation, together with the measurement of rock surface temperature, frosts induced movement, change in snow cover area, and rainfall in different slope–aspect and altitude gave some basic information regarding factors responsible for the rockfall occurrence.

Rockfall activities during dry-, rainy- and winter-season were investigated by direct rockfall counting in the upper Kanchenjunga valley, north-east corner of the Nepal Himalaya. Rockfall activity abruptly increased from the middle of dry season (middle of April) and remained very high during rainy season. In winter the number of rockfall was very small. The number of rockfall/km2 was maximum in the east-facing slope, followed by south-, west- and north-facing slopes. The rockfall abruptly increased in the morning time (between 8:00 am and 8:59 am). The number of rockfall was high before noon in the east-facing slope while it was high in the afternoon west-facing slope.

In dry and summer seasons, the number of rockfall varies because the area of the exposed bedrock fluctuates, while it does not have any significant difference in winter. Precipitation plays an important role in the rockfall activity only in summer when the temperature is high enough to melt the snow. The north-facing slope has small diurnal range of rock surface temperature, while the east-, west-, and south-facing slopes have large diurnal range in winter and vice versa in summer. The south-facing slope experiences multiple diurnal freeze thaw cycles. In contrast the seasonal freeze thaw action is considered to dominate on the north-facing slope. As a result small fragments are produced in the south-facing slope, and large blocks are released in the north-facing slope. FTC (freeze thaw cycles) and EFTC (effective freeze thaw cycles) are effective only if bedrock cliffs are wet either by melt-water or by precipitation. Monitoring of frost wedging shows the seasonal expansion and contraction of the rock joints, i.e., expansion in winter and contraction in dry and rainy seasons.

From March to May, maximum retreat rate (mm/km2/day) was maximum in the east-facing slope followed by the north- south- and west- facing slopes. While compared the entire area of the north- and south-facing mountain massifs, the number of rockfall is higher in the south–facing mountain massif but the retreat rate is higher in the north–facing mountain massif.

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English Version

The Wedding Ceremony of Nepal

Tomoko Fujita

March, 2003

Few days back, I went to Nepal for a week in order to attend the wedding ceremony of my friend Surendra. In Nepal, the wedding ceremony took several days with grand ceremonies. It was very interesting for me.

At bridefs house: At first, the wedding reception was held at bridefs house. Many colorful tents and chairs were installed in front of her house for this large-scale party. There was a seat for bride in one corner. The bride was waiting for her guests on her bridal dress. The party was started in the daytime and continued until after midnight. A large number of guests came to meet her with a gift. We were entertained with some snacks, several types of dishes and drinks.

Meeting the bride: The next day, the ceremony was held for meeting the bride. Ifve heard "Just meet the bride" beforehand. But it was not "Just". The Bridegroom rode on a car beautifully decorated with flowers. His family and relatives went to the bridefs house with a drum and fife corps. What a grand parade they had! Everyone looked at this parade, even people who were inside their house. The groom received blessing from all of the people. He said about such a big parade "The sound is so loud and bothers everyone in the neighborhood." Oh, my goodness! Wedding ceremony in Nepal seemed to become very luxurious.

Ceremony for bride: After they arrived at bridefs house, the ceremony went on without the groom. This ceremony was for bride and her family. Several big plates, which were dished up with different kinds of traditional foods, were prepared for the ceremony. The ceremony progressed following their tradition. Bride put each small piece of food on another food and her forehead in the ceremony. After all ceremony at bridefs house was completed, she left her house at last. Her mother looked at her very sadly. The sight touched everyone.

At the groomfs house: Groom and his family went back to his house with his bride. They had a ceremony for reception of the bride and the groom outside the front door. They had another ceremony inside his house the next morning. Groomfs elder sister also had wedding ceremony at the same time.@Colorful tents and chairs were placed in the garden. Some snacks, drinks and dinner were served for the guests. The garden party was a large-scale. Almost 900 people attended the party.

After that: Nepali traditional wedding ceremony was continued. The bride had another ceremony at her grandfatherfs house with her relatives the next day. They also had a ceremony for seeing new life after that. We were really surprised that the typical Nepali traditional wedding ceremony lasted so long. However, I was more surprised to hear from the bride that "Itfs not all the process, we cut it short." What a hard Nepali wedding ceremony is!

 @ @ Fun Time for Nepali Kids in Sapporo

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P]n] pgsf] gh/df 3fOt] nLnL 5 eg] sfgdf d]/Lsf] Ol8o6 eGg] cfafh u'lGh /x]sf] 5 . nLnLnfO dnd nufpb} a/a/fpb} 5g\ t/ d]/L nIflalxg uGtAodf lx8]sf] pgnfO yfx} 5}g . olTts}df Uof/]hsf] cfjfh cfof] / h]gL emNof+:; eOg\, Ps}l5gdf dnfO dfkm u/ h]gL eGb} yd;g leq k;]/ h]gLnfO c+sdfn u/] . rfx] dlxnf xf];\ rfx] k'?if, 7'nf] ;fgf] ;a}n] ulNt u/]df jf cfkmgf] sa'ndf 9"nd'n ePkl5 ulNt :jLsf/ ug]{ tyf dfkm dfUg] ;+:sf/ 5 . hflg hflg ck/fw ug]{ tyf lg/fk/fw AolSt dfg]{nfO klg zStLsf] cufl8 ;hf+osf] abnfdf dfg ug'{ kg]{ ;+:sf/ a;]sfnfO dlxnf;+u k'?ifn] dfkm dfu]sf] b]Vbf crDd nfUg ;S5, cdfGo x'g ;S5 . t/ yd;g / h]gLsf] ;dfhdf afnsb]lv a[Wb;Dd, lkogb]lv xflsd;Dd, u/Lab]lv wgL;Dd, sfo{stf{b]lv g]tf;Dd ;anfO dfGo 5 . x'g t yd;g l9nf x'g'df sf/0f 5, h'g AofVof u/]kl5 dfkm dfUg' gkg{ ;S5 . t/ h] ePklg yd;gsf sf/0fn] h]gLnfO{ w]/} a]/;Dd cK7\of/f] eof], lrGtfu|:t eOg\, cfs'n Aofs'n eOg\, To;sf/0f yd;gn] hlt;'s} sf/0f ePklg dflkm dfUg' kb{5 / dfu] klg . b'a} a}7s lt/ nfu] . yd;gn] laxfg h]gLnfO 5f]8] b]lvsf] a[tfGt atfpg s] nfu]sf lyP, t/ h]gLn] lsg xf] s'GgL, Tof] P]n] g} ;'Gg rflxgg\ / 6fg{ vf]lhg\ . lbgel/sf] s'/fO, lrGtf / ef]sn] xf]nf . x'g t h]gLsf] lbgel/ s'/fOsf] ysfO / lrGtf t yd;g 3/ cfOk'Ug] lalQs} dl/ ;s]sf] lyof] . kl5 s'/f u/f}+nf P]n] ef]s nfu]sf] 5 / ;'k klg lr;f] ePsf] 5 egL ttfpg efG5f lt/ lx+8Lg\ . Ps}l5gdf 6]andf vfgf l7s kfl/g\ . vfgf vf+b} yg;gn] s'/f lgsfn], cfh r/f x]g{ hf+bfsf] laj/0f . ;+/Ifslagf nfdf] ;do;Dd kfs{df b'O s]6fs]6L e]6]s]fn] pgnfO ;dfhdf To:tf a]lhDd]jf/ afa'cfdf klg /x]5g\ eGg]df lrGtf nfu]sf] atfP . ;fy} To;df cfkm" klg cfh Ps gful/sn] ug'kg]{ st{Aoaf6 r's]sf]df kZrftfk dfg]sf 5g\ eg]] kfs{df 5fl8Psf u'Gb|'ssf] af;gfn] rfln; aif{ cl3 vfPsf] u'Gb|'ssf] :jfb lha|f]df tfhf ePsf] ;'gfp5g\ . s]6fs]6Lsf] af/]df ;'Gbf h]gLnfO klg lrGtf nfUof] . o:t} x]nr]S|of+On] ubf{{ t 7"nf] b'3{6gf x'g ;S5 eG7flgg\ . u'Gb|'ssf] s'/f ;'Gbf h]gLnfO cgf}7f] nfUof], h'g yd;g;+usf] !% aif{sf] ;xaf;df cfh klxnf] k6s ;'Gb} 5g\ . pgLn] o; af/]df hfGGf] rf;f] o:tf] b]vfOg\ sL yd;gn] u'Gb|'ssf] af/]df gelg ;'v kfPgg\ / rfln; aif{ cl3 b]v]sf] s'/f ;+emb} eGb} u/] . cfkm\g} uf]7sf] dnvfbdf cyf{t\ la;'Wb k|f+ufl/s dndf lagf s'g} sL6gfzs k|of]u ul/ pTkfbg u/]sf] /fof], d'nf jf tf]/Lsf] ;funfO b'O{ tLg lbg;Dd 5f]k]/ ;'sfOG5 . To;kl5 xn'sf;+u l9lsdf s'6]/ cyf{t\ 9'u+fdf /fvL 76fP/ ef+8fdf a]:;/L vf+b]/ sf7sf] cunf]n] 7f]Sb} /fVb} u/]/ el/P kl5 9'+uf cyjf sf7n] c+7\ofP/ k|foh;f] 3f]K6f] kf/]/ 3fddf /flvG5 . 3f]K6f] kf/]/ /fVbf Toxfsf] kfgL /fd|f];+u lgy|g kfp+5 . cf7 bz lbg;Dd 3fddf ;'sfP kl5 ;fu leqleq} cldlnG5 / To;af6 kfgL aflx/ lg:sG5 . slt lbgdf l7s x'G5 eGg ufx|f] x'G5, t/ kf/vLx?n] tL ef+8fsf] glhs k'u]kl5 af;gfaf6} vf]Ng] a]nf eof] ePg yfx kfp+5g\ . To;kl5 3fddf ;'sfP/ v+/+u kfl/G5 . To;kl5 hlxn] vfP klg jf hlt /fv] klg x'G5 . olt eGb}df h]gLn] c? s] ;f]Wg vf]Hb} lyOg\ kmf]gsf] 3+6L aHof] / h]gL kmf]g p7fpg uOg\ . 5f]/fsf] kmf]g /x]5 . yd;g Sofn]G8/ lt/ cf+vf nufp5g\ t js{zkdf sf/ ;le{l;+u / OghLg cfon km]g{sf] nflu Pkf]OG6\d]G6sf] ;do eO;s]5, h'g b'a}n] lal;{/x]sf /x]5g\ . yd;gn] Psl5g kmf]g dfu]/ 5f]6f] s'/f u/L kmf]g km]l/ h]gLnfO lbP/ d]/f] js{zkdf Pkf]OG6\d]G6 5 egL sf/ lnP/ js{zk lt/ nfu] . @ Micro Hydro Electrification - Suitable Model for Remote Mountain Villages Lama Sunil Kumar Maharajgunj, Kathmandu Despite the enormous potentials for the hydropower generation, it is distressing fact that almost 85% people of Nepal have to live in dark. Electricity is inevitable in the modern society. We can imagine the difficulties of people being deprived form this basic facility. Degradation of the forest resources, excessive spending of time and effort for the collection of alternative resources of bio-energy and respiratory related health problems are the common problems faced by most of the people in the remote villages. Traditional way of agricultural practices, lack of alternative source of income and spending of large amount of savings especially during illness make these people to be always squeezing inside the circle of poverty. Access to the road can still be the long process to be achieved to the remote mountain villages. It is possible to provide immediate relief to such people through rural electrification. Due to the rugged terrain and scattered pattern of the settlements, it is economically unviable to depend on the Medium and the Small types of the Hydro project and in such circumstances the most suitable one is found to be the Micro Hydro Models. Almost all the electrical and mechanical components for the Micro Hydro Projects (MHP) could be manufactured in our own country and its installation could be done through the national manufacturing agencies. Possibility of involvement of local contribution during the construction process could make the project less costly, as well as it will also help to develop the sense of ownership on these poorly educated societies, which is also necessary for the sustainability of the constructed project. As the transportation of electrical and mechanical parts of MHP at the remote villages is the major problem encountering, it is possible to transport all of them through helicopter in one instance. Possibility of maximum use of the local materials and skills makes MHP also suitable on the remote communities. As the MHP could be little much larger in terms of cost and construction period compared with other development projects that are usually carried out in the remote villages, care is necessary to empower the local people for its proper management and operation. Users Group (UG) formed for this purpose should be given the basic training on various aspects like leadership development, basic management, account keeping etc. so that they could manage themselves when the development agencies put out their hand after the handover. Optimum utilization of the MHP could be achieved through the diversification use of generated electricity not only focusing for the lighting. Various small-scale entrepreneurships such as grinding mills, oil expeller, saw mills, herbs and fruit drier installation could be carried out in the community, which could greatly minimize the traditional methods of excessive labor extortion and could contribute to some extra income to the MHP for its regular maintenance and operation. One of the natural resources that are abundantly found in the mountainous region is the medicinal herb, which is widely collected and exported in the raw forms. Installation of even the very preliminary herbal processing unit could provide chance to get the local community value added price of the collected herbs and cost of the transportation could be greatly minimized. Reduction on use of oil base lamps, resin based wood (pine tree) for lighting purposes, which produces excessive harmful emission during its use, will help in minimizing the respiratory related diseases and electricity could provide better illumination with good environment for the night work and study for children. Despite of these attractive promises of MHP still there exist many challenges to be tackled throughout. Due to the difficulties of easy and nearby availability of technician and repair center (which are mostly centralized at the cities), it may take much time for repair leading to frustration in the users and ultimately may cause decrease on interest for the project. Need of involvement of free labor contribution may affect on their regular activities with extra burden on their poor economy. So improvement on quality of the electric and mechanical equipments, establishment of the repair center at least in each of district headquarters, provision of trainings and upgrading trainings to UG, frequent backstopping from the experts, provision of subsidy are the ones which are needed to be focused on the development of the MHP. To make people of the remote villages feel they are also a part of the main stream of the national development and to provide a little support in their very deprived basic life standard, electrification may be one of the best way to provide some relief on their hard life. @ Deteriorating Road Traffic Safety in Nepal Prakash Ranjitkar Malangwa, Sarlahi Over a thousand people get killed every year in road traffic accidents in Nepal, which is quite comparable with the most highlighted national problem, Maoist insurgency that has claimed around seven thousand lives in last seven years. It is true that if there is traffic there is accident also. It cannot be totally eliminated but can definitely be minimized. The problem is more serious as the trend is increasing in recent years. The concerned authorities are blaming on increasing traffic volume, narrow roads and insufficient road infrastructures for these accidents. Although these factors might have some contribution in traffic accidents but these are not the main reasons to be highlighted. It is strange to hear that two thirds of drivers have no idea about traffic signs and rules and they are unaware of traffic rules and regulations. Some of the night bus drivers drink alcohol while driving thinking that it improves their driving operation. This might be one of the reasons for frequent accidents of night buses and decreasing number of passengers in night buses. The authority has to be more careful and strict while giving license to drivers of public transportation and there should be proper monitoring system also to check their performance and physical conditions while driving. The mistake of a bus driver not only kills the driver himself but also all passengers in that bus. In recent days, the news about mishap with buses is increasing. There are around 350,000 vehicles registered in different parts of the country. The available road infrastructures networks are not sufficient to handle this volume of traffic although the volume itself is not that big. A statistical report on world traffic accident shows that the total number of fatalities in Nepal exceeds those in high-motorized countries like News Zealand, Switzerland and Philippines that have ten times higher vehicle population than Nepal. The capital city, Kathmandu that has half of the total vehicle population in the country, is facing serious problem in demand management and operational control of traffic. The number of traffic is rapidly increasing with the increase in number of people but the construction of new facility cannot catch up with increasing traffic demand. This has caused traffic congestion problems in the valley and also contributed to some extent in more familiar pollution problems. Beside this the frequency of road mishaps is alarmingly increasing in the valley since the past few years. The valley suffers 100 fatal road accidents every year with around two third of deaths involving pedestrians. The reports indicate that accidents are more likely during peak hours on working days. The accidents on holidays mostly involve youngsters driving under the influence of alcohol. Recently Japanese Government had provided financial and technical support to improve several road intersections in the valley. The improvement works are completed and currently in operation in more than ten such intersections. This will definitely improve traffic safety at intersections besides improving the capacity of intersection and smooth movement of vehicles and pedestrians. Some of the issues on operational management of traffic are raised here that needs improvement if traffic safety situation has to be upgraded, Untrained drivers: improper and unscientific licensing system Unaware road users: lack of road users awareness programs Road usersf negligence: lack of strict law enforcement Poor vehicle performance: lack of proper monitoring system Traffic rules and regulations: enforcement problem Beside these, the traffic accidents require to be analyzed properly to detect the cause of accidents and weakness of our system. Unfortunately we donft have even proper data keeping system of accidents and here we are talking about need for urgent remedial measures. Shall we all stop blaming on the things we donft have much control and start feeling our responsibilities towards our society and the nation? @ Manvi Bista Jawlakhel, Lalitpur The last time my husband (A. Bista), who is currently a research student in the Laboratory of Agriculture Economics, had been to Nepal for three weeks in last November, leaving behind us (myself and daughter) in Sapporo. During his absence, I, being a newcomer to Japan, had missed him very badly. Since that was his first trip back home after coming to Japan the same year, it was obvious for our friends in Sapporo and in Nepal to ask me for the purpose of his visit. I knew that he had gone to assist his laboratoryfs research on various aspects of potato farming in the suburbs of the Kathmandu Valley and that was what I used to inform them. The most common reactions to my answer would be "Potato? What is there to study about?" Potato expresses different meaning to people coming from various backgrounds. I had even read a very amusing essay on potato by a renowned Nepali essayist. So, to keep myself busy, and I, too, being an agriculture graduate, decided to review literature on potato. This article presents the most striking account on potato that I had come across. Potato farming in Sankhu, Nepal The Irish Famine, which was caused by potato, is certainly the incident that is worthy to be shared in this article. Ireland, which is a pretty advanced country now, was poor country during the early 19th century, with its population depended largely on agriculture. Since there were few industries, most of the people lived as tenants on small farms owned mostly by English landlords, who used to take much of what they produced as rent. Most of the tenant farmers had to struggle to sustain their livelihoods. Potato was the main food for the poor Irish people, though they used to raise animals and grains as well. From 1845 to 1848, Ireland's potato crop failed due to a plant disease, commonly known as the late-blight (or Dadhuwa in Nepali language). Failure of potato crop, caused about one million deaths due to starvation or disease related to malnutrition, and about 1.25 million more immigrated to foreign countries, mainly to the USA. All these caused the British gradually pass laws to help the Irish, which included laws of protected tenants' rights. The laws also provided financial help to the tenants to buy land from their landlords. All these changes had originated from potato crop. Botanically, potato is of Solanaceae family and its scientific name is Solanum tuberosum. Potato was originated in South American countries, mainly in Bolivia, Chile, and Peru, which were under Spanish colony. Spanish explorers from South America introduced them into Europe during the middle of the 16th century. It gradually got spread to the whole world after that. European immigrants introduced potato farming to the USA and Asia. At present, China ranks first in growing potatoes in the world. Russia, Poland, the United States, and Ukraine, rank second to fifth in the world, respectively. It was introduced in Nepal via India. Many farmers in Nepal have benefited by potato farming. Researchers (like the researchers in my husbandfs laboratory) are studying on how farmers can benefit more from potato farming. Potato is one of the most widely grown vegetables in the world. A potato consists of about 80 percent water and 20 percent solid matter, like starch and protein. Potatoes contain vitamins such as niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, and vitamin C. Minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur are also found in potatoes. Thus, potatoes have high nutritional value. And for the ones who are sensitive to calorie intakes, potatoes are good food as it is not fattening especially if eaten boiled or baked. An average-sized baked potato that weighs around 200 grams (1 pau) contains fewer than 100 calories, which is lesser than drinking a glass of sugared soft drinks. Potato can be used to prepare in many ways like baked, boiled, French-fried, fried, and mashed and are served with meat or fish and with other vegetables. In Nepal, potato pickle (Aalu ko achar) is one of the most preferred dishes by all ages. Potato has various forward linkages in the economy. It can be processed to make products like potato chips and instant mashed-potato powder. Potatoes are also used to prepare alcoholic beverages, flour, and starches. Potato tastes vary not only with variety but also with microclimates. In my short stay in Japan, I have noticed that Hokkaido is renowned for potato production. Hokkaido potatoes taste reminds Nepalese of high-hill-produced potatoes (lekali aalu) of Nepal. Perhaps Hokkaidos experience on potato cultivation can be useful in high hill regions of Nepal. ________________________________________________________________________ Some Tips for Healthy and Good Looking Hair Collected by Sabina Ranjitkar The haircut and hairstyle can transform your look and personality from grossly ugly to a glamorous look. A wrong hair cut can detract the charm and glamour from your appearance, which is innate to every face. The mishandling of hair too, can lead your crowning glory to become the worst feature of your appearance. Thus, to maintain your crowning glory or to achieve such a goal, you need to take care. Let us give some time to talk about how to maintain your hair, healthy and attractive. Here are some tips given by some hair experts that I have compiled from different sources. The first step to beautiful hair is cleanliness. You must wash your hair every alternate day or even daily, if necessary. This will not harm your hair as long as you make sure of the quality of the shampoo. Never compromise on the quality. Also, use glycerin on your hair for conditioning, for around 20 minutes before shampoo. You shall use shampoo and conditioner separately. Both have entirely different functions and hence must be used separately for adequate results. Henna has a very drying effect on your hair. So, avoid using it and instead choose a quality hair dye to color your hair. Always trim your hair at least once in six weeks. This will help you maintain your hairstyle and also keep split ends away. Go in for hair massage with glycerin once a week followed by steaming your head with a wet towel. This will ensure that the glycerin is absorbed down to the roots of the hair and help condition the follicles and the shaft alike. Never brush your hair when it is wet, as this only leads to their breakage. Use a wide toothed comb to disentangle your hair after shampoo. Avoid blow dry to style your hair as far as possible. The heat leads to weakening of the hair roots. If your cut requires a blow dry to style, you must first let your hair to be half dry and only then use the dryer to style. This will reduce the duration your hair is exposed to direct heat from the dryer. Always change the brand of shampoo and the conditioner you use, every two months. This will help your hair to avoid developing resistance to the products and greatly improve their efficacy on your hair. This also reduces the chances of causing a build up, that is, the deposition of chemicals from your shampoo on your hair shaft, after regular and continuous use of a particular brand of shampoo. As a result, you will find your hair having that much coveted shine and bounce. If you are using any herbal products on your hair, then make sure that you find out the ingredients used in the product and also do a patch test on the inside of your elbows. This precaution will hold you in good stead, since you will be able to avoid harmful chemicals that might be added to the herbal product and also save you from allergic reactions, which can become very painful. And last but not the least, it is not, so, important as to what you put on your hair but what you put in your hair. For this, you need to eat right and be healthy. So, remember, for healthy and shining hair you need a healthy body. @ d]3/fh e08f/L, k|sfzk'/, ;'g;/L k[i7e"dLM @)%$ ;fnsf] :yfgLo r'gfjdf d Ps sd{rf/L ePsf] sf/0f dsjfgk'/ lhNnfsf] clt ljs6 If]qdf cjl:yt sf+s8f ufp+ lasf; ;ldltdf r'gfj u/fpg vl6P/ uPsf] lyP+ . x]6f}+8f gf/f0f3f6 ;8ssf] nf]y/ eGg] :yfgaf6 sl/a kf+r 306f hlt 7f8f] psfnf] r8]kl5 r]kfª hfltsf] afx'No /x]sf] las6 kxf8L al:t sf+s8f k'lu+bf] /x]5 . sl/a rf/ lbgsf] r]kfª al:tdf a;fO{sf] s|ddf d pgLx?sf] /xg;xg / vfgkfgaf6 Hofb} k|efljt eP+ . d Ps vfB Pa+ kf]if0f la1 ePsf sf/0f sGbd"n vf; u/]/ luf, Eofs'/, ef/nfª / ag t?ndf dfq b}lgs u'hf/f rnfpg af£o xf]rf, ;fgfsb / cGo hfltx?sf t'ngfdf sdhf]/ ;fl//Ls agf}6 ePsf r]kfªsf af/]df laleGg pT;'stfx? hfu]/ cfof] . s] luf Eofs"/ dfq} vfP/ logLx?sf] kf}li6s cfjZostf k'Unf t, lsg r]kfª zfl//Ls ¿kdf olt sdhf]/ clg xf]rf Pa+ k'8\sf ePsf xf]nfg\ cflb o:tf laleGg k|Zgx?sf] ;DaGwdf s]lx cg';Gwfg ug{ dnfO{ pT;'stf hfu]/ cfof] . o;sf] nfuL d}n] laleGg ljZj ljBfno tyf cg'zGwfg s]Gb|x?df kqfrf/ u/]+ . o;} s|ddf d]/f] o; xf]SsfO8f] ljZj ljBfnosf k|f]km];/;+u ;Dk{s eof] / ltg} r]kfªx?sf] d"Vo vfB a:t' luf, Eofs'/sf af/]df cg';Gwfg ug{ oxf+ xf]SsfO{8f] cfO{k'u]+ .

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Womenfs Role in Nepali Society

Sabina Ranjitkar

Malangwa, Sarlahi

History and contemporary trends have shown that girls are more productive than boys if they are provided with equal opportunities. But girls are less privileged than boys in most of third world countries. Nepal is among the few countries where more than half a million girls have never been to school. Even those who go to school rarely complete their education. The rate of girl dropouts is far more than that of boys. In rural areas girls in working class families do not play with pots and pans but they are made to start cleaning real pots and pans, and real homes, looking after real babies whereas boys are sent to school or made to work outside home. The interests of girls and boys are channelised differently through such differential treatment and they develop different capabilities, attitudes, aspirations, and dreams. The gender difference psychologically surfaces in childhood and the same extended to adult age.

It may be ridiculous to hear in developed society like Japan but it is fact that our society even mothers regard her daughters as a burden despite the fact that from a very early age they help with household and agricultural works. Men predominantly interact with the outside world, while womenfs major sphere of operation is within the households. It is said that Nepali girls and women work more than the boys and men do, spending 25-50 % time on household works besides other economic and agricultural activities.

There are several cases of mothers being discriminated due to the reason of giving birth to a daughter. Girls are discriminated by not letting them become independent in their youth stage. From their childhood, a situation is created where they are disciplined not to participate actively in outer activities. Such discrimination exists within family through the parents in the childhood stage, through the husband and in laws in the youth/adult stage and through sons in the older stage.

The end of discrimination against girls is also a matter of women freedom. The society has to be changed and equality has to be realized in every sector of life including education, health services, property, labor, etc through proper law enforcements and social and cultural awareness programs. Of course the situation cannot be improved in one or two days. The society has to be changed step by step. There is a need to take forward a strong movement on social changes based on the values of egirlfs rights womenfs rights, human rightsf a movement which can shed light in the society and bring behavioral changes across the society. Similarly, a movement has to be taken forward to end all discriminatory laws and effectively implement the commitments made by the government. If this aim is not achieved, no matter how effective the law may be or no matter how many international commitments are made, discrimination will still exist in different forms. Equal opportunity for education and equal status in family can be initial step in this direction. The involvement of women in income generation activities is another important aspect to achieve equal social status. The social malpractices in our society including inconsistent marriage, child marriage and dowry practices have to be eliminated. Let us try to make our society free of any kind of discriminations.

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Nepal Photo Exhibition in Sapporo

Surendra Tamrakar

Kamalpokhari, Kathmandu

The winter season in Sapporo had just started when this special event was organized at the central business area of Sapporo city. The building where the photo exhibition was organized is called Chuu-Ou-Ku-Kumin Center, which is like a ward community center, where the rooms can be rented for social gathering and other similar activities. It was the first such event held in Sapporo, organized by a Nepali citizen. The main purpose behind this event was to introduce Nepali culture, customs, social and economic situation etc. to Japanese people who have interest on Nepal.

It was very difficult task for a person like me who is not a professional photographer and not even had sufficient photographs for this type of exhibition. Thanks to my Nepalese and Japanese friends who helped me a lot to organize this event. I had a strong will to organize this type of photo exhibition about Nepal from the day I came to Japan. But it was difficult for me because I did not know anybody that time and there was a language barrier also. However, like the Nepali saying "Daibale bhanchha Tä Aät, Ma Puryaidinchhu" (meaning "God says that if you have a will he blesses you with the success"). The same happened to me here.

I got a breakthrough for my dream to materialize when I contacted the writer of Hokkaido Shinbun (Hokkaido Daily Newspaper) and told him about my plan. At first, he was also surprised to hear that without having any good photographs of my own, how can I organize such exhibition. And then I told him that I want to put my message in his newspaper asking for co-operation of all the people who had visited Nepal and who were having Nepali photographs. I also mentioned him about my motive behind it. In fact, there were two main motives; first to introduce Nepal and Nepali customs to Japanese, and second to have their attention and co-operation for the school construction and scholarship for the children of Nepal. After listening to me, he agreed to help me and put a notice on his newspaper. I got some responses from the people around Sapporo. Some of them asked me to visit their home and others said that they will send their memorable eNepal-visit-albumf to me and I can freely select the photographs by myself. I was really very lucky and excited to get responses from so many people. In addition, some of our friends from Hokkaido University and one bhaujyu from Saitama University also helped me to put on some more photographs. I was really very happy to get their kind co-operation.

The exhibition was held from October 26 to 31. As this included weekdays also, at first I had some difficulties in finding volunteer for the exhibition. But when I talked with some of my Japanese friends, they were really very interested in helping me. Finally, I found many friends to look after the exhibition in my absence.

This photo exhibition included the nostalgic memories of so many Japanese who had visited Nepal during their youth. They displayed their "Takara Mono" –(memorable or very important things) during the exhibition. I really felt proud that I could make a place for those Japanese who had so many photographs and willing to show them to other Japanese but still had not found a place for, as they were not a professional photographer.

Another attraction of the event was Nepali dresses and Nepali goods. There was a corner for Nepali goods including Nepali tea (only during weekends). In addition, many Japanese women wore Nepali sari too. Thanks to Mrs. Radha Adhikari for her effort and time to teach Japanese women how to wear a sari. Thanks to all the friends who have directly or indirectly contributed in this event.

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Untitledc!

Subesh Ghimire

Khajura Khurd, Nepalgunj, Banke

People used to say he is a mad man. He always blubbered and always rushed. He always looked terrified but people were scared of him. Sometimes he was a mean of fun and sometimes the same people used to hit him. He never cared anything; he never left the villages where he was roaming though he was always wronged by the society.

I was also a part of the same society. And of course, like others, I did not have a minute to think about him. In fact I always ignored his existence and obviously all were doing the same. I was juxtaposed with him under very adverse circumstances. Those days, though I had graduated I was jobless and was nicknamed as a "worthless-literate". I was suffering with very tight monitorial condition; even I had to ask my mother for my pocket money. It was a rainy night; I was in the zigzagged, steep and narrow path on the hill slope, back to home. I saw him behind a bush peeping at me. I was surprised and somewhat feared to see him there. He suddenly came in front of me and laughed loudly. I did not care and proceeded myself ahead though I was aware of any harmful attack from him. He followed me with his indistinct chant. I was confused whether he was expressing a joy or a grief because he was turning into a cry from a giggle frequently. Suddenly he grabbed my arms from behind; I turned back. I was amazed to see such an unexpected action from him.

It was a dark night, and was further darkened by the heavy clouds in the sky. The lightning flashed the surroundings only for a moment. The environment was further thrilled by the sound of splashes of the rainwater. He grabbed my arms and I turned backc! He was soundless, grabbing me forcefully and shaking his head up and down. I was surprised and in defense was just about to make a heavy punch on his face, the sky again flashed and I saw a mysterious smile at his wrinkled face with his eyes full of tears. I felt he wanted to tell me something. I then surrendered myself to him. Finally he broke the peace with his distinct but a gravelly voice, "You and your society say me a mad. May be I am a mad but you all are more cracked c"

He stopped for a breath and again continued, "Tell me! Am I really a mad?"

I did not have any answer to his overwhelming query. I was looking him from the top to the bottom. He, with rags on his body, was looking very strange. His wrinkled face with dark beard was glowing. Pungent smell of his bad breath was stroking my nose and I could hardly see his pale yellowish, tobacco stained teeth when he opened his mouth to say something. Suddenly he started sobbing and cried heavily. He sat on the foot trail, covered his face with his palms and continued sobbing. He was murmuring; his voice could hardly stroke my ears. He was saying, "I am not a mad. You people made me so."

He stopped for a moment, lit a bidi (traditional cigarette in which tobacco is wrapped in dry leaf), inhaled a large puff and dragged me towards him. I just sat in front of him. He brought his mouth near my left ear and whispered, "Do you know I am not mad? I am your father..."

In response I just smiled. He saw me smiling and shouted between puffs of his bidi, "You too donft believe me? You are my son and Ifm coming here just for you! Believe me you are my son." He continued, "You were just born when your mother died. Your grandpa, my father in law then brought you here. And now you believe that your grandpa is your father. Believe me my son, I am telling you the truth!"

At that moment I did not have any option than saying him "father" because it was too late for home, the rain was growing still heavier and I had to get rid of that old man who was claiming to be my father. Moreover I was worried about the old man who was soaking with rainwater; he might be caught by cold or pneumonia. Therefore to end our conversation, I said, "I believe youc! My father!"

I could see a wave of joy passing through his face. He began jumping and dancing saying "I got my son! I got my son!" He came very close to me and kissed me, then ran down the hill slope. The trail was slippery; there was risk of slipping and rolling down the hill slope, which ends at the riverbank. I tried to stop him saying, "Fatherc! Listen to me..!" But he did not care; he did not stop, he ran and ran and disappeared.

Next morning, the sky was clear though some fragments of the clouds were still flying as if they were in hurry to reunite and to flush the earth once again. I went to the riverside as always for jogging and open toilet. Most of the people in the villages in my country still use riversides as open toilet. I was very fresh, very hopeful of this new morning. The river was roaring with its raised water level. The ripples stroking the banks were seemed very insistent to destruct and sweep away the stony banks. Big eddies of muddy water were disputing me not to boast on present, nonetheless I knew that the then appearance of that small river was a result of the heavy rain of the last night. I felt, the small river did not believe that each unfold-today is an abstract of already closed yesterdays. I smiled at that senseless talk with the small but pompous river. I climbed up to the village.

After the breakfast, I went to the nearby primary school where I was volunteering after my university graduation. Nonetheless I had applied in a number of offices for job; I did not get any response yet. Of course I was hopeful everyday of getting positive response for a good job. I was devoting the leisure time in that school where I had completed my primary education. I could find my childhood in each child there, and it was giving me a great pleasure. It was very interesting to listen to the innocent talks of small children, to play with them and to talk with them.

On the way to home, a crowd gathered near the riverbank attracted me. The old man, the mad man was lying dead at the middle of the crowd. I was shocked to see him dead. His mouth was opened; his rags were wet and muddy. I felt his lifeless eyes watching me. I heard someone saying; "Poor madc! After all; got rid of this hellc" From the people I knew that he was found sunk in the river that morning. I guessed he might have fallen into the river last night when he ran downhill after our conversation. I gave a final look to him; I felt his face was blooming with satisfaction and his lips saying something; may be "My son..." I did not know that my eyes were filled with tears; and started spilling over my chicks. I could not stay there any second more and ran towards my home.

Later I knew from my mother that his wife died immediately after delivering a son. He and his son were then living with the family of his father in law. According to the story told by my mother, there was a catastrophic flood and land slide in the village some twenty years ago which swept away many people, cattle and property. During that devastating catastrophe the poor old man lost everything. His property, his son and other family members all were swept away by the flood. He could not bear this and became mad.

________________________________________________________________________

Foster Father

Saseem Poudel
Maharajgunj, Kathmandu

"You are not my daddy." These words coming out of an 8-year-old girl, hit my heart more heavily than a cannon ball. I could not believe my ears. My little girl, who I loved more than anything in the world, had just proved that she was not my own daughter. She had just rejected the unconditional love and care I had showered her with for past 8 years and made me realize the fact that I was not her own father. I was not the person who had impregnated her mother and she was not a part of me.

"Who told you so?" These were the only word that I could find.

"My friends," she said, for the first time she looked up at me and I could see her tear filled eyes. Oh! What a selfish old fool I had been, to tell you the truth, an insecure selfish father! I just had though about myself and hadnft even taken a second to think what she must have been going through, to tell me, the only person she had in this world who loved and cared her, that I was not her father, at my face. I should be ashamed of myself. How could I have been so selfish and just thought of myself only, not even noticing the tear filled eyes of my little girl?

I looked into her tear filled eyes and she looked into my eyes filed with love for her and a little of sorrow. She could feel tight warm grip of my embrace and I could feel her warm little body, the body of my daughter. And we both needed no further proof that she was my daughter. Yes she was my daughter. My daughter!!

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Hokudai Nepalese Directory

Alumni

Researchers

 Dr. Krishna Hari Gautam Joined: June 2002 Faculty: Research Associate (JSPS), Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science Tel. +81-11-706-2224 (Lab) Fax. +81-11-706-2213 (Lab) Address in Nepal: P.O. Box 10864, Kathmandu Tel. +977-1-492057 Mobile: 090-2056-8283 Email: khgautam@yahoo.com Researchers Previously Worked at Hokudai Dr. Madhav Raj Sharma (1985) Current Address: Professor, Central department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal Dr. Madhab Prasad Gautam Faculty: Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science Current Address: Associate Professor, Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Students

Compiled by: Prakash Ranjitkar @

The publisher reserves all rights of this publication, unless otherwise specified. However, the copyright of the thesis abstracts is all reserved by the respective authors. On the behalf of Hokkaido University Nepalese Student Association, the bulletin is published by the editorial board of Hokudai Bisauni.

Disclaimer:

Authors are solely responsible for the accuracy and authenticity of the contents in the respective articles, and the publisher does not take any responsibility for the liability or any damage caused by any contents in the articles. Any article published in the bulletin shall not be copied or stored in any media or transferred without the prior written permission of the publishers or respective authors.

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